Did a little research and calling spiked golf shoes "nails" is not entirely unheard. However using a google search this thread comes up number one. With the screw in spike system coming to market in the 1890's most of us (except for Doug) would have heard and used the term spike.
Pre 1890's there is not much information. One would think in the somewhat rural area of Scotland people would have a pair of hobnail boots. However some say people made golf shoes by hammering nails into a heavy soled shoe and I am sure some did. But why bother when you have the same thing already on your feet?
All in all lets face it the metal attachments which still go into some golf shoes have a thread on it so it can be attached by turning (NOT NAILING) into the sole. Gee now what would you call something that requires you to turn it rather than hammer it?